"After all, the engineers only needed to refuse to fix anything, and modern industry would grind to a halt." -Michael Lewis

For Doers

The Java Stream API: Collecting Into Maps

2018-10-21

You can view the sample code associated with this post on GitHub.

Taking a stream of POJOs and transforming it into a map is one of the more common uses of Streams. There are a few built in ways to get what you want. The simplest way to map one field to another in a POJO is by using the .toMap(..) method.

Starting with a SimplePair object:

public class SimplePair {

    private String name;
    private int id;

    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }

    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }

    public int getId() {
        return id;
    }

    public void setId(int id) {
        this.id = id;
    }

    @Override
    public String toString() {
        return "name-" + name + ",id-" + id;
    }
}

If we use the following method to set up five SimplePair objects in a collection:

public static List<SimplePair> generateSimplePairs(int numToGenerate) {
    List<SimplePair> pairs = new ArrayList<>();
    for (int i = 1; i <= numToGenerate; i++) {
        SimplePair pair = new SimplePair();

        pair.setId(i);
        pair.setName("pair" + i);

        pairs.add(pair);
    }
    return pairs;
}

Here, our collection would look like [(id: 1, name: pair1), (id: 2, name: pair2), (id: 3, name: pair3) ... ].

We can thus use Streams to map the ids to the names:

@Test
public void collect_mapIdToName() {
    Map<Integer, String> mapIdToName = simplePairs.stream().collect(Collectors.toMap(SimplePair::getId, SimplePair::getName));

    assertEquals(mapIdToName.get(3), "pair3");
    assertEquals(mapIdToName.get(5), "pair5");
}

In the more common case where you want to map the id's to the object itself, use Function.identity():

@Test
public void collect_mapIdToPair() {
    Map<Integer, SimplePair> mapIdToObject = simplePairs.stream().collect(Collectors.toMap(SimplePair::getId, Function.identity()));

    SimplePair pair1 = mapIdToObject.get(1);
    SimplePair pair4 = mapIdToObject.get(4);

    assertEquals(pair1.toString(), "name-pair1,id-1");
    assertEquals(pair4.toString(), "name-pair4,id-4");
}

Unfortunately, there are caveats to this approach. If you insist on using the toMap(..) method, you will have to resolve duplicate values, if there are any, by adding a lambda that resolves the disparity. If we have more pairs with the same ids, by adding two with the id of three:

private void addDuplicatePairs() {
    simplePairs.add(new SimplePair() {{
        setId(3);
        setName("another-pair3");
    }});

    simplePairs.add(new SimplePair() {{
        setId(3);
        setName("yet-another-pair3");
    }});
}

We can resolve to the existing value or the new value, or by any other determination, like so:

@Test
public void collect_resolveConflictsOnMap() {
    addDuplicatePairs();

    Map<Integer, SimplePair> mapWithExistingValue = simplePairs.stream().collect(Collectors.toMap(
            SimplePair::getId,
            Function.identity(),
            (existingValue, newValue) -> existingValue // established is always better
    ));

    assertEquals("pair3", mapWithExistingValue.get(3).getName());

    Map<Integer, SimplePair> mapWithNewestValue = simplePairs.stream().collect(Collectors.toMap(
            SimplePair::getId,
            Function.identity(),
            (existingValue, newValue) -> newValue // newer is always better
    ));

    assertEquals("yet-another-pair3", mapWithNewestValue.get(3).getName());
}

To collect it into a list gets more complicated if you stay with the .toMap(..) method, so we'll bail on that for simplicity right now. When we want a Map<> from a collection, the most common reason would be to collect each one into a bucket based on some criteria, usually by a single property field.

The easiest and most straightforward way to do that is to use the built in groupingBy(..) collector:

@Test
public void groupingBy_sortToMap() {
    addDuplicatePairs();

    Map<Integer, List<SimplePair>> mapIdsToPairs =
            simplePairs.stream().collect(Collectors.groupingBy(SimplePair::getId));

    assertEquals(3, mapIdsToPairs.get(3).size());
    assertEquals(3, mapIdsToPairs.get(3).get(0).getId());
    assertEquals(3, mapIdsToPairs.get(3).get(1).getId());
    assertEquals("another-pair3", mapIdsToPairs.get(3).get(1).getName());
}

Finally, partitioningBy(..) allows you to map boolean values to a collection, where the "true" key maps to all the objects for which the lambda expression evaluates to "true". Here, we add our duplicate pairs again, then place all the pairs that have an id of 3 into the true bucket, and all the others into the false bucket:

@Test
public void parititioningBy_sortByTrueAndFalse() {
    addDuplicatePairs();

    Map<Boolean, List<SimplePair>> partitionedByIdOf3 =
            simplePairs.stream().collect(
                    Collectors.partitioningBy(pair -> pair.getId() == 3)
            );

    assertEquals(3, partitionedByIdOf3.get(true).size());
    assertEquals(4, partitionedByIdOf3.get(false).size());
}

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